Biomass: steel is used extensively in agriculture.
Solar: steel plays a key role in converting solar energy into electricity or hot water. It is used as a base for solar thermal-panels and in pumps, tanks and heat exchangers.
Wave and tidal: a steel pile is the main component of a tidal turbine in tidal energy systems. Steel is also used to fabricate wave energy devices. The steel used is formulated to withstand the challenges of the marine environment.
Hydroelectric: steel is needed to reinforce concrete dams.
Wind: steel is the main material used in onshore and off-shore wind turbines. Almost every component of a wind turbine is made of steel, from the foundation, to the tower, gears and casings (see Steel Solutions in the Green Economy: Wind turbines).
Steel is used in nuclear and fossil fuel-based energy:
offshore oil platforms
equipment for oil and gas extraction and production
natural gas and oil pipelines and storage tanks
Steel is used for the production and distribution of electricity:
transformers (magnetic steel core)
generators and electric motors
power distribution pylons and steel-reinforced cables.
Steel is used for energy transport and distribution:
ships, trucks and trains used to transport fuel
transport networks: steel is required for bridges, tunnels, rail track, and in constructing buildings such as fueling stations, train stations, ports and airports.